Our free history, examination and surgical skills guides provide a welcome refresher ahead of the exam. Podcasts, videos and downloadable notes help you to prepare. Make sure you also know the format, timings and cost of the intercollegiate MRCS Part B with our exam overview information. Try Our Sample Questions.
The MRCS Part B Questions online question bank features HD cadaveric anatomy spots tests, interactive skills questions with images and core pathology, critical care and applied science stations keeping all your revision in one place. The question bank offers candidates sitting MRCS Part B a way to practise common Part B questions and test their surgical knowledge with feedback provided by experienced surgeons. The Trachea The trachea extends from the lower border of the cricoid cartilage level of the C6 vertebra and terminates into two main bronchi level of T5 vertebra , it is approximately 11 cm in length.
It is composed of fibroelastic cartilage and is prevented from collapsing by a series of U-shaped cartilaginous rings. It is lined by columnar ciliated epithelium containing numerous goblet cells.
Wade Programme in Surgical Anatomy
Left Brachiocephalic Vein The left brachiocephalic vein is formed by the confluence of the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. In addition it receives drainage from: - Left internal thoracic vein: drain into the inferior border - Left inferior thyroid vein: drain into the superior aspect near the confluence - Left superior intercostal vein The left brachiocephalic vein is usually longer than the right.
The right and left brachiocephalic veins merge to form the superior vena cava behind the junction of the first costal cartilage with the manubrium sternum. The brachiocephalic veins are the major veins returning blood to the superior vena cava. Ascending Aorta Commences at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.
The only branches of the ascending aorta are the two coronary arteries which supply the heart; they arise near the commencement of the aorta from the aortic sinuses which are opposite the aortic valve. Pulmonary Trunk The pulmonary trunk or pulmonary artery begins at the base of the right ventricle. It is short and wide—approximately 5 centimetres 2. It then branches into two pulmonary arteries left and right , which deliver deoxygenated blood to the corresponding lung.
The right atrium contains the fossa ovalis the site of the foetal foramen ovale , an oval depression on the interatrial septum. The Crista terminalis separates the smooth-walled posterior atrium derived from sinus venosus from rougher anterior area derived from the true atrium. The right atrium pumps deoxygenated blood to the right ventricle. This sample station tests your knowledge of cardiovascular applied sciences. Feedback From Past and Existing Users. Created By Surgeons, For Surgeons. The Days held to date have attracted both senior undergraduates and also junior trainees and the participant feedback has been exceptionally positive.
MRCS | East of England
The day is designed to allow trainees to get an overview of the type of anatomy questions asked in the MRCS examination, as well as to practice answering questions in a relaxed atmosphere, with an emphasis on faculty feedback. This course provides a brief, structured review of the anatomy of the whole body in preparation for the MRCS anatomy OSCE, with a strong emphasis on interactive identification of cadaveric specimens. The College runs a number of courses for specialty trainees at a more advanced stage of training in order to provide an opportunity to practise operative procedures on cadaveric specimens.
Reviews of relevant surgical anatomy are provided for these courses under the auspices of the Wade Programme. Such courses are currently provided for urological and paediatric surgical trainees, as well as for general surgical trainees operating on the thorax and abdomen in the context of trauma.
Get Directions. The suprascapular nerve is a branch from the upper trunk. It initially lies medial to the humerus and then moves anteriorly. Proximally the ulnar nerve is medial to it, and the musculocutaneous and median nerves lies laterally. It lies medial to biceps and its tendon.
The median and radial nerves pass through the cubitalfossa, but not the ulnar. The radial nerve passes through the lateral triangular space and the median nerve through the carpal tunnel. The arcade of Frohse is a site of possible posterior interosseus nerve entrapment.
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The deep muscles of the forarm do not attach ,and they are pronatorquadrates,flexordigitorumprofundus and flexor pollicislongus. The musculocutanous nerve is a branch of the lateral cord. The anterior wall is formed by pectoralis major and minor; the posterior wall is formed by subscapularis , latissimusdorsi and teres major and the medial wall is formed by serratus anterior and the ribs. The floor is formed by the axillary fascia. The apex is formed by the first rib, clavicle and scapula. It then pirces the lateral intermuscular septum and divides into the posterior interosseous nerve and the superficial radial nerve at the level of the lateral epicondyle.
Damage to the nerve in the spiral groove causes wrist drop but not loss of elbow extension because the nerve supplying the triceps muscle are given off more proximal to this. To also cause loss of elbow extention,damage would have to be at the level of the axilla. It also supplies sensation to a patch of skin on the medial aspect of the thigh.
Irritation of this nerve by pelvic pathology may result in pain in this distribution because the lateral pelvic peritoneum is supplied by the obturator nerve as it passes through the pelvis. They attach at the level of the anatomical neck of the humerus. Specifically the attachments are: subscapularis to the lesser tuberosity;supraspinatus,teres minor and infraspinatus to the greater tuberosity in that order from above down. As well as moving the shoulder joint they also act as a muscular support.
Supraspinatus runs through a tunnel formed by the acromion and the coraco-acromial ligament and its tendon is fused to the capsule of the shoulder joint. It may be idiopathic or associated with pregnancy, Rhumatoid arthritis, diabetes or hypothyroidism. It typically presents with pain and Paraesthesia over the thumb and lateral two fingers,which is worse at night.
There may be associated wasting of the thenar muscles. C6 and C7 join to form the superior trunk, C7 continues as the middle trunk and C8 and T1 form the inferior trunk, the trunks divide into anterior and posterior divisions and then combine to form lateral posterior and medial cords. The cords divide to form the main nerves: musculcutanous nerve lateral cord , median nerve lateral and median cords , axillary nerve posterior cord , radial nerve posterior cord and the ulnar nerve medial cord.
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There are several branches arising from the roots,trunks and cords. For example: the long thoracic nerve, which supplies serratusanterior,arises from nerve roots C5-C7; the thoracodorsal nerve , which supplies latissimusdorsi ,arises from the posterior cord, whereas the nerve to subscapularis arises from the posterior cord. Pain is worse on lifting the arm, particulary when elevated between degrees. On examination there is tenderness just lateral to the acromium process. In contrast supraspinatus rupture makes active abduction impossible, although there is afull range of passive movement.
Frozen shoulder occurs as aresult of degenerative changes of the rotator cuff. Pain due to this causes the patient to hold the shoulder still and adhesions form,which limit movement even more until only scapular movement remains.